Drawing – The Dreaded Foreshortening

Instagram

Foreshortening is a word used to describe the drawing of a person or object in perspective and this where I sometimes get myself into real trouble!

Let’s pretend we were to crouch and look at a person lying down on the beach.  If we were to look at the person from the top of their head view we would hardly see anything of the side of them. So the motto with foreshortened drawings is, “the more we see of the end, the less we see of the sides.”

20111 002 20111 003

When tackling a foreshortened subject, I firstly try to establish whether the figure is lying diagonally and if so, which way is it sloping? To start on my page, I draw a very light diagonal line to guide me.

Finding the midpoint is particularly vital in foreshortened drawings and will appear not where you would guess it to be. I tend to treat the drawing as a jigsaw puzzle of many pieces joined together and return to my starting point with freehand drawing as often as I can. This way, my struggle with proportions becomes a little easier.

It is most important to draw what you see even if it doesn’t make sense. Having said that, this may not feel right as you are drawing because the shapes will be so different from what you know and recognize. In fact, the shapes could almost be described as nonsensical.

This rough charcoal foreshortened drawing below was so difficult to do and I think I must have unsuccessfully had at least six attempts.  The mid-point is very deceiving here and appears just below the girl’s bikini top.  After many attempts, I did the drawing while listening to an interesting topic on the radio.  This is a good tip because it is enough to distract us so we lose concentration and allow the drawing to flow without trying too hard.

March 2012 3 0202011 002

Check out this great site which has fantastic tips on foreshortening.

Edward A Burke’s drawing and painting site is also a great reference.

Advertisements

Drawing: It’s a Matter of Placement – Finding the Mid-Point

05111 001211 012

Placing the subject correctly on the page once created huge problems for me and I can remember my teachers at art school repeating “don’t make little drawings in the middle of the page” or “fill up the page.” Somehow these statements fell on deaf ears and students (including myself) continued off and on to put our drawings all over the place.
Here are some images of incorrectly placed drawings.

211 008 211 009 211 010

The first is cut off at the ankles, the second too small compared to the size of the paper and the third has the lower part of the figure bunched up to fit on the page.

Today I will talk about how I saved myself a world of trouble later on in my drawing by planning the placement of the subject first. It is best to be relaxed about this process so as not to get bogged down with detail and thus set down a tight tone for the drawing. The motto is “whatever!”

A shape is so much more manageable as two halves and this is at the heart of how I place my subject correctly on the page.

The half above the midpoint must fit into the top 50% of your drawing page and half below must fit into the lower 50% of the page.

Most art instructional books advise me to do a sighting with a pencil. The way to do this is to align the top of the pencil with the model’s head and guess the mid-point.

I don’t see the purpose of this and since I’m guessing anyway prefer to do use my eye only.  Here’s the deal:

  • Check out your subject (whether in a photo, real life object or figure) and estimate half the height with your eye. What do you see at that spot, is it an elbow, hip, or another marker?
  • Then go ahead and estimate the half-way height point of your drawing page, then make a dot right there!
  • I usually make a mark around this dot showing a little of what I see at the half-point of the subject (elbow, hip or other marker) and commence my drawing from there. In my drawing of the snowboarder above, the half point was at the left-hand side of the man’s body at his waist.
  • Next, above and below this mark, establish where you want the drawing to end at the top and bottom of the page (usually quite close to the edge.) Mark a dot at the points, one near the top and one near the bottom to represent the extremes of the figure.
  • I usually start drawing from the marked mid-point. The dots at the top and bottom of the page tell me how far up and down I can go to keep the drawing placed squarely on the page.

In the case of a horizontal drawing, it helps to guess the halfway point both horizontally and vertically as below.

211 007 05112 001

I was not too accurate in my drawing at the top of the page as you can see.  The distances from the drawing to the sides of the page are not even.   The left hand edge of the snowboard and the right-hand edge of the man’s helmet were the extreme widths of the figure in this case.  Oh well, I am happy with the drawing whichever way.

Anyhow, you will be very surprised at how accurate your eye is in establishing two manageable halves.

Now your boundaries are set and you are ready to proceed with your loose handwriting.

I found this really great, helpful drawing blog by a self-taught artist named Paul from the UK.  No one beats him for encouragement.  Here is the link: http://www.learning-to-see.co.uk/drawings

Courage – Daily Therapy for Artists

0912 037

The simple person does not take himself too seriously or too tragically. He goes on his merry way,  his heart light, his soul at peace, without a goal, without nostalgia, without impatience.  Andre Comte-Sponville